• CHARACTERIZATION SERVICES

From nanoparticles to exosomes, we provide your lab with the most valuable information about your nanomaterials that can help you control the quality of your products and ease the path to publishing. We count with the most advanced equipment and technology to fully analyse all the physical and chemical properties of your interest. Characterization allows the prediction of the behaviour of the nanomaterials like long-term stability or in vivo distribution. Obtain a detailed report, which can include the following measurements:

  • Size and size distribution
  • Z-potential
  • Particle concentration
  • Morphology analysis:
  • Drug loading capacity & Entrapment efficiency:
  • Molecular/element analytical methods

Size and size distribution:

Determined using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA). The information provided by those techniques is the mean size and size distribution of the particles in suspension, whether they are nanovesicles, polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles, exosomes, or other nanostructures. It is a crucial parameter that influences its performance in in vivo treatments and thus therapeutic effectiveness as a result. Among other processes it affects:

  • In vivo distribution
  • Organ and organelle accumulation and uptake
  • Renal and liver clearance
  • Drug loading capacity

Z-potential:

This parameter is defined as the difference between the charge of the nanoparticle surface and the dispersion it is within. It measures the degree of repulsion between the nanoparticles, and consequently the likelihood of aggregation. It can be used as a:

  • Predictor of long-term stability
  • Assessment of coating effectiveness
  • Indicator of potential cell adhesion

Particle concentration:

By means of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) particle concentration can be measured in real time. Like the size, particle concentration is an important factor to be considered for the following reasons:

  • Toxicological problems
  • Drug delivery efficiency
  • Regulatory requirements
  • In the case of exosomes, it may be linked to disease

Morphology analysis:

Proper morphology plays an important role for the correct performance of the nanoparticles. The structural information can be obtained with various techniques like:

  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  • High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM)
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Drug loading capacity & Entrapment efficiency:

The drug loading capacity is the amount of the active principle that is encapsulated per weight of nanocarrier. Depending on the application and type of active principle, it may need to be adjusted to reduce the toxicity of the drug or modify the speed of delivery. This can be done by modifying the components of the nanoparticle. It can be measured by different methods as UV-visible spectrophotometry or high-performance liquid chromatography.

The entrapment or encapsulation efficiency is the amount of product that has been successfully entrapped by the nanovesicles. The higher the encapsulation efficiency the less product that is been lost resulting in lower financial costs. It can be measured with two different methods:

  • The direct method: in which the active contained in the nanocarrier is released and measured.
  • The indirect method: in which the free active that have not been entrapped in the nanocarrier is measured.

Molecular/element analytical methods:

To determine the concentration or presence of molecular or elements in a solution, for example to measure the concentration of exosomes, among other types of particles. Different purification and analytical techniques are available:

  • Dialysis
  • Centrifugation
  • Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • VIS-UV spectrophotometry
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
  • Confocal microscopy