• Polymeric nanoparticles

    Polymeric nanoparticles are excellent in vivo nanocarriers due to their biocompatibility (approved by the FDA) and their special suitability for oral administration of pharmaceuticals. They are made of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers or copolymers with a size in the range of nanometers, like PLGA – Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid). Drugs can be encapsulated within the carrier, physically adsorbed onto, or chemically linked to the surface.


  • FDA and European Medicine Agency approval in drug delivery
  • Biodegradability and biocompatibility
  • Encapsulation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds
  • Protection of drug from degradation
  • Possibility of sustained and controlled release


  • Vaccines: Polymeric nanoparticle-based vaccines for in vivo applications have been developed to carry a wide variety of antigens. Some examples are: hepatitis B surface antigen, malaria antigen, yersinia pestis antigen, and HIV. It has also been used for different administration routes like oral, pulmonary, intranasal and subcutaneous.
  • Biosensors: PLGA nanospheres have been used in the development and improvement of hemocompatible biosensors that allow the analysis of whole blood with electrochemical techniques.
  • Cancer treatment: PLGA nanospheres have been used for the successful delivery of anti-cancer treatments in vitro and in clinical trials. Results show that drugs encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles have superior accumulation in the tumor environment, reduced tumor size and enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation.
  • Oral insulin administration: The use of PLGA nanoparticles have been shown to improve the sustained release of insulin. The reduction in the insulin total dose and the release rate is of great interest since it decreases the secondary effects of insulin burst.
  • Tissue engineering: The delivery of growth factors in PLGA nanocarriers is of great interest to promote the thrive of engineered tissues. It facilitates the interactions between the scaffold and the vascular cells.